Steel Questions and Answers
AISI General Questions
is the difference between iron and steel?
Answer: Iron is an element that
when combined with carbon and other elements makes steel.
Question: Who invented steel?
Answer: Most credit Henry
Bessemer with the invention of steel in 1856. He founded the Bessemer
Steel Company in Sheffield,
Today, steel is still produced using technology based on the Bessemer
Process of blowing air through molten pig iron to oxidize the material
and separate impurities.
Question: What does AISI do?
Answer: AISI is a not-for-profit trade
association that serves as the voice of the North American steel
industry in the public policy arena and advances the case for steel in
the marketplace as the material of choice. We represent 75% of steel
producers in North
here to find out more.
Question: Do the Pittsburgh Steelers have any association with steel or
Answer: While the Pittsburgh
Steelers themselves do not have a direct affiliation with AISI, their
logo certainly does. The Steelers logo is based on the Steelmark logo
belonging to AISI. Back in the early 1960s, the Steelers had to
petition AISI in order to change the word “Steel” inside the
Steelmark to “Steelers” before the logo was complete. For
the full story on how the Steelers adopted their new logo, click
Question: What is meant by a “net” ton?
Answer: Net means the
measurements of tons as 2,000 pounds. For every net ton, that equals
Where can I find detailed information regarding worldwide
pig iron production including: production plant name, production process
type, capacity of the plant, type of solid residues/chemical composition
of it, reuse of the residues/costs or benefits out of it, etc.?
Answer: Contact the
World Steel Association, Rue Colonel Bourg 120, 1140 Brussels, Belgium,
Phone #32-2-702-89-00, Fax #32-2-02-88-99, Web site: http://www.worldsteel.org or e-mail: Norris@worldsteel.org.
Question: Is all metal pipe made from plate, then rolled? How is the seam
pipe is pierced from a billet or bloom. Other pipe is cast.
However, most pipe is rolled from steel plate, that is rolled into a
pipe and welded closed. There are, of course, various forms of
Question: Where can I find information about comparable steels,
based on chemical composition and/or mechanical properties?
Answer: You can find this in the 2nd Edition of Handbook of Comparative
World Steel Standards available at ASTM at www.astm.org or order the
DS67 B (handbook) at 610-832-9585 or fax 610-834-3636 email firstname.lastname@example.org
Question: Where can I find historical information on the steel
industry, i.e. plants, production, steelmaking, photos,
“Steelways” publications, previous AISI regional and annual
Answer: Information dealing with early Institute history, papers,
historical steel making photos, etc. has been transferred to The Hagley
Museum, 298 Buck Road, Wilmington, DE 19807, Phone #302-658-2400, Fax
#302-658-0568, Website: http://www.Hagley.org.
Question: At what strength (PSI) is steel considered
Answer: Structural steel is a term used in the ASTM standards.
You may obtain the definition by checking with American Society for
Testing Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA
19428, Phone #610-832-9500, Fax #610-932-9555, Website; http://www.astm.org.
Question: What is the size of the steel composite deck market
in the U.S. and
Answer: This information can be obtained by contacting the Steel
Deck Institute, P.O. Box 9506, Canton, OH 44711, Phone #216-493-7886,
Fax #216-493-7886, Website: www.sdi.org.
Question: Where can I find information on #10 steel cans used
in the food industry?
Answer: Contact Can Manufacturers Institute, Web site: www.cancentral.com
Question: I’m looking for information on stainless steel,
which the AISI Committee on Stainless Steel Producers produced, where
can I find it?
Answer: Booklets formerly produced by the AISI Committee on
Stainless Steel Producers are now distributed by the Nickel Development
Institute, Phone #416-591-7999, Fax #416-591-7987, Website: www.NIDI.org and also
Specialty Steel Industry of North America, Phone #800-982-0355, Fax
#202-342-8451, Website: www.ssina.com.
Question: AISI at one time published a directory of steel plants
in Canada and
the United States - do you still have these?
Answer: The Directory of Iron and Steel Plants and also on
Suppliers is published and distributed by the Association of Iron and
Steel Engineers, Three Gateway Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15222, Phone
#412-281-6323, Fax #412-281-6216, website: http://www.aise.org.
Question: Where can I find a cross reference between AISI materials
and DIN materials?
Answer: You may check American Society of Metals International,
9639 Kinsman Road, Materials Park, OH 44073, Phone#800-336-5152, Fax
#216-338-4634, Website: http://www.astm-intl.org. Look for
the publication Worldwide Guide to Equivalent
Irons and Steels.
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Question: What is a norm?
Answer: A norm is the same as a standard.
Question: Where can I find a book that provides technical information
about dimensional steel, specifically I-Beams?
Answer: The dimensions of heavy sections can be found in the Manual of
Steel Construction published by the American Institute of Steel
Construction. You may visit their Website at www.aisc.org/. Light structural
members can be downloaded at www.ssma.com, "Product Technical Information."
Question: I am interested in finding some reference source on steel
properties such as tensile strength, yield, density, etc.
Specifically, I am looking for 1013 steel plate properties at present
Answer: The best single reference for this information is the
"Metals Handbook, Desk Edition, 2nd Edition, which can be purchased
Question: Where can I get a Design Manual for 14K2 Bar Joist?
Answer: Bar joist information is available through contacting
Vulcraft, Website: www.vulcraft.com/ or Steel Joist Institute, Web site: www.steeljoist.org
Question: Where can I locate a publication called Wire Rope Users
Manual, which was a joint effort of the Committee of Wire Rope
Producers, AISI, and the Wire Rope Technical Board and was published by
the American Iron and Steel Institute in 1979?
Answer: Wire Rope Users Manual is available from the Wire Rope
Technical Board, Phone #888-289-9782 or 1-816-236-5054, Fax
#1-816-236-5040, Website: WRTB@usa.net
Question: I am working on regulations associated with Structural
Steel Erection in response to federal OSHA’s Final Rule on Safety
Standards for Steel Erection. Where can I obtain an informational
handbook on this subject that would have common terms used in the
industry and explanations of various connecting work and construction
Answer: This information is available from American Institute of
Steel Construction (AISC), One East Wacker Drive, Suite 3100, Chicago,
Il 60601, Phone# 312-670-2400, Fax #312-670-5403, Website: www.aisc.org.
Question: Where can I find the AISI book on steel entitled: The
Making, Shaping and Treatment of Steel?
Answer: The Making, Shaping and Treatment of Steel was an US
Steel publication which is now being published and distributed by the
Association of Iron and Steel Engineers, Three Gateway Center,
Pittsburgh, PA 15222, Phone #412-281-6323, Fax #412-281-6216,
Question: I’m looking for a copy of AISI’s Steel Electrical Raceways Design
Manual publication has it been updated
Answer: Electrical Raceways and other Methods, 2E, by: Richard
Loyd has been updated three times since 1996 with the latest edition
scheduled for publication in 2002. Copies can be obtained from:
Heartland Technical Bookstore, 701 Collins Street, Suite D, P.O. Box
949, Little Rock, AR 72203, Phone #1-888-863-8827, Fax #501-372-8184,
Question: I’m looking for a copy of AISI 73 Criteria for Structural Application of Steel Cables for
Buildings. Has it been discontinued?
Answer: We have the 1973 edition in our archives, however this
publication has been updated by the American Society of Civil Engineers
(ASCE), 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, VA 20191, Phone
#703-295-6000, Fax #703-295-6333, Website: www.asce.org. The new pub is
entitled: ASCE 19-96 Structural
Application of Steel Cables for Building.
Question: Where can I find AISI standard 12L14CRS and what is the
Answer: AISI does not sell standards. The Iron and Steel
Society distributes AISI Standard Steels
(Handbook). These handbooks contain the
heat chemical ranges and limits for those grades of steel designated as
standard by the American Iron and Steel Institute. The unified
numbering system (UNS), the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), and
the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) designations are
shown where appropriate. The Iron and Steel Society, 186 Thorn
Hill Road, Warrendale, PA 15086, Phone #724-776-1535, Fax #724-776-0430,
E-mail: email@example.com, Website: www.issource.org/
Question: How can I obtain a copy of Manual of Steel Construction
dealing with steel design?
Answer: Hot rolled steel design manual is available from the
American Institute of Steel Construction, One East Wacker Drive, Suite
3100, Chicago, IL, Phone #312-670-2400, Fax #312-670-5403,
Website: www.aisc.org. The full name
of the manuals: (1)Manual of Steel Construction, Load and Resistance
Factor Design (2) Manual of Steel Construction, Allowable Stress
If you are interested in Cold –Formed Steel the Cold-Formed Steel
Design Manual is available from American Iron and Steel Institute, 1101
17th Street, N.W., Suite 1300, Washington, DC 20035, Phone
#202-452-7100, Fax #202-463-6573, Website: www.steel.org.
Question: Can you describe the video “Designing with
Cold-Formed Steel”, Publication SG-9601?
Answer: The videotape is about one hour long. It describes
how the cold-formed steel members are made and where the cold-formed
steel members can apply. The information is general.
Question: Where can we find a video copy of the old film
Steel and America-A New Look?
Answer: We no longer distribute Steel and
America-A New Look, copyrights to that film reverted back to Walt
Disney Productions. Contact them or call Westwood Screen, Suite
202, 211 Watling Avenue, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4Z 1P3, Phone
Question: Where can I find a copy Modern Sewer Design –
Answer: Canadian edition of Modern Sewer Design can be obtained
from the Canadian Sheet Producers Institute, phone #519-650-1285, Fax
Question: I’m looking for a 1992 publication Report on
Steel Industry Waste Generation, Disposal Practices, and Potential
Environmental Impact, that Baker Environmental did for AISI where can I
acquire a copy?
Answer: A copy of this report is located in AISI’s
Question: Where can we find a copy of the “American
Rust Standard Guide – a Guide for Grading Hot Rolled Steel by
Answer: The book has been out of print since the
1960's. You can contact the Society for Protective Coatings
(SSPC), which produces the VIS 1 in both English &
Spanish versions and can be purchased from them at www.sspc.org.
Question: Do you have a publication, or know where I can
find, Stress Strain Curves for a variety of automotive steels,
specifically for Crash Finite Element Analysis purposes?
Answer: May I suggest you look into the Technical Papers
available at the Society of Automotive Engineer’s (SAE) Website:
Question: Is the “Making of Steel” still in
Answer: The “Making of Steel” an AISI publication on
how steel is made beginning with the history of steel making is no
longer being distributed. However, we do have copies our archives
Question: What are the improvements made in the 2002
edition of the Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual?
Answer: In addition to updating the Manual for conformance with
the 2001 edition of the North American Specification, the following
improvements or additions have been made:
Standard studs and tracks produced by members of Steel Stud
Manufacturers Association are included in Parts I through IV.
Four new comprehensive design examples are added:
- C-Section with Openings - ASD and LRFD in Part
- Unbraced Equal Leg Angle With Lips - Compression in
- Section - Built-Up from Channels in Part III,
- Bolted Connection with Consideration of Shear Lag in
A table of cross references between the Specification
provisions and the corresponding illustrative examples is provided in
Part V. Numerical designations have been added to the titles of test
procedures in Part VI.
The following three new test procedures are included in Part
- AISI TS-4-02, Standard Test Methods for Determining
the Tensile and Shear Strength of Screws;
- AISI TS-6-02, Standard Procedures for Panel and
Anchor Structural Tests and Commentary on the Standard
- AISI TS-8-02, Base Test Method for Purlins Supporting
a Standing Seam Roof System.
Question: How does
AISI number the building construction standards?Answer:
Since 2007, each AISI building construction standard is numbered
by a unique standard designation number followed by the edition
number. For example, AISI S100-07 means the 2007 edition of
Standard S100. The standard vs. the corresponding standard
designation number is provided as follows:
AISI S100 – North American
Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural
AISI S110 – Standard for Seismic
Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Systems – Special Bolted
AISI S200 – North American
Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing–General
AISI S201 - North American Standard for
Cold-Formed Steel Framing–Product Data
AISI S210 - North American Standard for
Cold-Formed Steel Framing–Floor and Roof System
AISI S211 - North American Standard for Cold-Formed
Steel Framing–Wall Stud Design
AISI S212 - North American Standard for Cold-Formed
Steel Framing–Header Design
AISI S213 - North American Standard for Cold-Formed
Steel Framing–Lateral Design
AISI S214 - North American Standard for Cold-Formed
Steel Framing–Truss Design
AISI S230 - Standard for Cold-Formed Steel
Framing–Prescriptive Method for One and Two Family
AISI S9xx – A series of Test Procedures for
cold-formed steel members, components and connection.
Please visit AISI e-store for ordering the publications.
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Question: What is the most recycled product on earth?
Answer: According to many, the most recycled product on earth is
the automobile. Nearly every car in North America, once scrapped,
is sold for its usable parts, drained of its fluids then crushed,
shredded and recycled.
Question: What is the recycled content of steel products?
Answer: All steel products contain at least 25 percent recycled
content. Some steel products contain up to 100 percent recycled content.
There are two processes for making steel. The Basic Oxygen Furnace
process, which is used to produce the steel needed for packaging, car
bodies, appliances and steel framing, uses a minimum of 25 recycled
steel. The Electric Arc Furnace process, which is used to product steel
shapes such as railroad ties and bridge spans, uses virtually 100
percent recycled steel.
Question: What are the three steps of the recycling process that
the universal recycling logo symbolizes?
Answer: The three arrows in the recycling logo stand for
collecting recyclables, process and manufacturing recyclables into new
items, and buying recycled products. Most people don’t realize how
important the third arrow in the loop really is. Purchasing recycled
products helps sustain markets for recycled goods. The process of
recycling just won’t work if these end markets don’t exist.
With steel, you always buy recycled products because all steel products
contain at least 25 percent recycled steel.
Question: What was the overall steel recycling rate in 2007?
overall recycling rate in 2007 was 78.2 percent, which is the second
highest level in the last decade. This means that more than 72 million
tons of domestic steel scrap was recycled.
To find out more about steel recycling, visit www.recycle-steel.org.
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Bridges High Performance Steel
Response by Roy Teal, Consultant to AISI and the HPS Steering
Committee & Welding Advisory Group
Sponsored by the American Iron and Steel Institute Contact:
202-752-7100 or http://www.steel.org
about the manufacture and use of high performance steel, grades HPS70W
and HPS50W for bridges, plus other steel related topics.
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Question: What is the most recent
edition of the Cold-Formed Steel Specification?
Answer: The most recent one is the
2007 edition of the North American Specification for the Design of
Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members (AISI S100-07). A Supplement No. 2
(including Supplement No. 1) to AISI S100-07 has been published in 2010.
The 2001 edition is the first edition of the North American cold-formed
steel specification which is applicable in the USA, Canada and
Mexico, and it superseded the previous AISI Specification editions
(1996 or older editions) and the previous CSA S136 editions (1994 or
older editions published by Canadian Standards Association). AISI
S100-07 is available to order via the link here.
Question: What are the differences
between the 2007 edition and the 2001 edition of the Specification for
the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members?
Answer: The differences between the
2007 edition and the 2001 edition of the North American Specification
for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members was summarized in
the PDF file. Click here to view or print the Summary.
Question: What are the improvements made in the 2008
edition of the Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual?
Answer: In addition to updating the
Manual for conformance with the 2007 edition of the North American
Specification, the major improvements are included in the Preface of the
Design Manual. Click here to view the Preface.
Please visit AISI e-store for ordering the publications.
Question: Does cold-formed steel has standard
Answer: The steel stud industry has
standardized steel studs and joists (channel sections with lips) and
tracks sections (channel sections without lips). Please visit
the Steel Stud
Manufacturers Association website to obtain the catalog for
standardized sections. The AISI Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual, 2008 Edition,
includes most commonly standardized sections. Useful tables,
charts, and design examples are provided in the Design Manual.
There are no other standardized shapes for cold-formed steel
Question: How can I find section
property tables, load tables, and other design aides?
Answer: For standardized stud and
track sections, information can be found in the catalog published by
Steel Stud Manufacturers Association (www.ssma.com).
The 2008 edition of the AISI Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual also
provides gross and effective section properties of standardized stud,
track sections, as well as channel, zee, hat and angle sections
typically used in the cold-formed steel structures.
Question: How can I order the
Specification, Design Manual, and Design Guides?
Answer: AISI publications can be
ordered via AISI e-store. Click
here to link to the e-store .
Question: What is the main difference
between hot-rolled steel and cold-formed steel?
Answer: Cold-formed steel shapes are
formed at room temperature, while hot-rolled steel shapes are formed at
elevated temperature. From a design point of view, cold-formed steel is
much thinner than hot-rolled steel, therefore, local buckling must be
considered in cold-formed steel design. Cold-formed steel members are
designed following North American Specification for the Design of
Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members or AISI Cold-Formed Steel Design
Manual. Hot-rolled steel members are designed following AISC Steel
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Please visit Steel
Framing Alliance Web site.
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Steel Distribution Poles Questions and
Contributed by Valmont Industries, Inc.
Question: Please explain how steel
poles can be called equivalent to wood poles, the materials are so
Answer: The equivalency is based on
loading specified by ANSI 05.1
for each wood pole class and then modified by a ratio of overload
factors for wood and steel.
Question: Would you comment on the
deterioration of wood versus steel?
Answer: Wood, being a natural grown
material, deteriorates with age. It is subject to rot, fungus and decay
as well as attack by insects and woodpeckers all of which will reduce
the strength of the material. In most utility applications, the "normal"
life of a wood pole is approximated 30 years. Steel on the other hand
has an infinite life span when corrosion is kept in check. The use of
galvanizing has proven to be an effective deterrent to corrosion for
above ground and many below grade applications. There are some very good
coatings which have been developed for below grade protection when soil
conditions warrant it. These coatings, in conjunction with galvanizing,
can extend the life span of steel considerably.
Question: Are Steel Distribution
poles on the approved RUS (REA) listing of materials?
Answer: RUS does not approve
material. They have a listing of approved suppliers of material. REA
co-ops that have used steel distribution poles have indicated in their
work plans they are being used "to gain experience and to look to the
future". The application of steel distribution poles may require
conditional approval for use on RUS funded projects.
We will use the poles per the A1 and C1 REA applications. Are there
any problems using steel distribution poles in these applications?
Steel distribution poles can be used just like their wood
Question: Do steel poles have a
provision for grounding equipment such as transformers, arresters, fuse
Answer: Some pole manufacturers
provide one grounding device at the groundline as a standard for all
distribution poles. It is very easy to add an additional ground nut at
the transformer location during fabrication should the utility indicate
such a need. One manufacturer’s standard is a 3/8" diameter
threaded insert. This detail will also accept the grounding stud used
with transformers. Additional threaded inserts can be easily be added in
the field by the utility at the time of pole installation should they be
Question: Can we mount transformer
racks directly to the pole?
Answer: Because steel poles are round
and approximately the same diameter as their wood counterparts, any
transformers currently mounted on wood poles should be able to be
mounted on steel.
Question: What precautions are
required for installing steel poles during "hot insert"
Answer: The same safety procedures
and precautions currently being used for wood poles should be used for
steel poles in this type of application.
Question: Do you need to guy steel
poles; and if so, how do you guy them?
Answer: Steel distribution poles
would need to be guyed if the wood pole it is replacing would have been
guyed. The steel pole can be guyed just as you would a wood pole using
the same hardware. By using a stronger class steel pole it may be
possible to eliminate the need for guys all together.
Question: Can guy attachments be
included on steel poles for attaching guy wires?
Answer: Steel poles can be guyed
using the same hardware currently used for wood poles. Permanent
attachments such as vangs can be welded into the poles for attaching
guys, but this will increase the delivery times and pole costs. The use
of your current hardware and construction standards means no additional
changes have to be done to enable a utility to start using steel
Question: What precautions are
required for handling galvanized steel poles?
Answer: The preferred method of
lifting the poles is to use nylon slings. While a galvanized pole is
very tough and abrasion resistant, it is not recommended that chains be
used when handling them. During storage in the material yard, blocking
should be used to keep the poles off the ground and to separate each
layer just as you currently are doing with your wood poles.
Question: Are name plates provided
on the poles, and will utilities have problems with tagging the poles
with the present lettering systems available?
Answer: A tag is attached to the pole
with the manufacturers name, pole height and class stamped on it. If the
utility wishes to tag the poles with other information, they can easily
add an aluminum tag that can be either pop-riveted or expoxied onto the
Question: How many holes do steel
poles come with as a standard?
Answer: For some steel utility pole
manufacturers, there is no standard, or default, for the number of holes
in a pole. The utility may specify as many holes as they would like and
the manufacturer will drill them at the time of fabrication. Additional
holes can also be easily drilled in the field, should they be
Question: How difficult is it to
drill holes in steel poles in the field?
Answer: Holes can easily be drilled
using either a rotabroach type of drill or standard twist drill. The
rotabroach works best since it requires less force or energy to drill a
Question: Do you recommend a
Answer: Some utilities use ground
sleeves. The need for a ground sleeve depends on many of the same
factors used to determine the need for below grade coatings. Corrosive
conditions or areas inaccessible for routine inspection may warrant the
additional protection and cost of a ground sleeve, (typically two feet
in length centered on the groundline).
Question: Our standard practice
for deadening 3 phase construction is to deaden the outer phases on the
arm and the center phase on the pole. When we do this we take advantage
of the insulating properties of the wood. What happens when we go to a
steel pole, do we have to go to larger insulators?
Answer: Larger insulators are one
solution. One utility still uses their standard wood construction
practice when they deaden on the end of the arm. They get the additional
insulation they feel they need, for the center phase, by adding a
fiberglass link between the pole and the insulator.
Question: In the western US, there
is a great deal of emphasis and effort on raptor protection. Will the use of steel poles pose
a threat to raptors?
Answer: Utilities that are concerned
with electrocution of raptors, or bird of prey, have modified their
distribution configuration to minimize the threat to the these birds.
Typically, this modification on 3-phase construction consists of
dropping the crossarm, with the outside phases, 43". This same
construction can be used with steel poles. In addition, it may be
necessary to field apply a layer of heat shrink wrap just above the
crossarm to prevent the possibility of a phase to ground contact.
Question: What finishes are
Answer: The standard finish is hot
dip galvanizing. High-tech coating systems such as powder paint are
available to apply over the galvanizing in instances where a particular
color is desired.
Question: How do we climb these
poles when we have to?
Answer: An optional removable
climbing safety step can be provided which fits into holes pre-drilled
in the pole.
Question: Can pole manufacturers
coat the inside of the poles with galvanizing or paint?
Answer: During the galvanizing
process, the entire pole is immersed in the bath of molten zinc. Because
the pole is immersed in both the cleaning solutions, flux and zinc, the
inside surface is adequately cleaned and a good layer of zinc bonds to
the pole. This process protects the pole inside and out. On painted
poles, only the outside of the pole can be painted. Due to their small
size, there is no way to mechanically clean the inside of the pole
adequately for the paint to bond to the surface. This is why painted
steel poles need to be sealed, to prevent moisture from reaching the
interior surface and causing corrosion. If paint over galvanizing is
specified, there is no need to be concerned about the interior as the
zinc will provide protection.
Question: How does a utility
determine which class of steel pole is equivalent to a given class of
Answer: Steel distribution poles are
typically designed to be equivalent to wood pole classes under NESC
Grade B Construction requirements. Optional designs are available to
meet loading criteria such as NESC Grade C Construction, or virtually
any other regulatory or custom requirement.
Question: What prevents a steel
pole from sinking into the soil after it has been set in the ground?
Answer: All poles come with a welded
bearing plate to prevent the poles from settling into the soil when a
vertical load is applied.
Question: We presently are using
the fiberglass crossarms on our wood construction, will we still be able
to use these arms with steel poles?
Answer: You can use the same hardware
currently being used on wood poles.
Question: Will we need to purchase
different bolts, washers, etc., in order to use steel poles?
Answer: The same hardware currently
being used for your wood poles will work with steel poles because they
are round and of approximately the same diameter.
Question: How thick is the pole
Answer: Most poles are made from 11
gauge material (0.1196"). Some of the taller poles require 10, 7, or 5
gauge material (0.1345", 0.1793", 0.2092").
Question: Will there be a problem
with crushing the pole wall due to over tightening of the bolts?
Answer: Although it may be possible
if excessive force is used, we are not aware of this problem occurring
when standard practices are followed. This includes using 4" square
washers under the heads or nuts of the bolts.
Question: Typical wood
construction uses grid gains between the pole and the arm, is this
required for steel poles?
Answer: Most utilities who are using
steel poles still put a grid gain between the arm and the pole. The gain
provides a good flat surface to mount the arm to and due to its curved
surface also provides good bearing surface to the pole. It keeps the arm
from rocking on the pole. We know of one utility who has not installed
gains. Utilities use either the standard gain used on wood poles or have
switched to a plastic gain which has a smooth surface both against the
pole and the arm.
Question: Twisting or turning of a
pole a problem?
Answer: Normally twisting or turning
of a steel pole is not a problem. However, should a utility feel it
could occur for their application, the utility could easily drill a
couple of holes in the base and attach either bolts or other equipment
to prevent this from occurring.
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