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Steel Questions and Answers

AISI General Questions
Publications and Standards
Recycling
Bridges
Cold-Formed Steel
Residential Construction
Steel Utility Distribution Poles


AISI General Questions


Question: What is the difference between iron and steel?
Answer:
Iron is an element that when combined with carbon and other elements makes steel.

Question: Who invented steel?
Answer:
Most credit Henry Bessemer with the invention of steel in 1856. He founded the Bessemer Steel Company in Sheffield, England. Today, steel is still produced using technology based on the Bessemer Process of blowing air through molten pig iron to oxidize the material and separate impurities.

Question: What does AISI do?
Answer:
AISI is a not-for-profit trade association that serves as the voice of the North American steel industry in the public policy arena and advances the case for steel in the marketplace as the material of choice. We represent 75% of steel producers in North AmericaClick here to find out more.

Question: Do the Pittsburgh Steelers have any association with steel or AISI?
Answer:
While the Pittsburgh Steelers themselves do not have a direct affiliation with AISI, their logo certainly does. The Steelers logo is based on the Steelmark logo belonging to AISI. Back in the early 1960s, the Steelers had to petition AISI in order to change the word “Steel” inside the Steelmark to “Steelers” before the logo was complete. For the full story on how the Steelers adopted their new logo, click here.

Question: What is meant by a “net” ton?
Answer:
Net means the measurements of tons as 2,000 pounds. For every net ton, that equals 2,000 pounds.

Question:     Where can I find detailed information regarding worldwide pig iron production including: production plant name, production process type, capacity of the plant, type of solid residues/chemical composition of it, reuse of the residues/costs or benefits out of it, etc.?
Answer:   Contact the World Steel Association, Rue Colonel Bourg 120, 1140 Brussels, Belgium, Phone #32-2-702-89-00, Fax #32-2-02-88-99, Web site: http://www.worldsteel.org or e-mail: Norris@worldsteel.org.

Question: Is all metal pipe made from plate, then rolled? How is the seam closed?
Answer:  Some pipe is pierced from a billet or bloom.  Other pipe is cast. However, most pipe is rolled from steel plate, that is rolled into a pipe and welded closed.  There are, of course, various forms of nonsteel pipe.

Question: Where can I find information about comparable steels, based on chemical composition and/or mechanical properties?
Answer:   You can find this in the 2nd Edition of Handbook of Comparative World Steel Standards available at ASTM at www.astm.org or order the DS67 B (handbook) at 610-832-9585 or fax 610-834-3636 email service@astm.org

Question:   Where can I find historical information on the steel industry, i.e. plants, production, steelmaking, photos, “Steelways” publications, previous AISI regional and annual meetings?
Answer:   Information dealing with early Institute history, papers, historical steel making photos, etc. has been transferred to The Hagley Museum, 298 Buck Road, Wilmington, DE 19807, Phone #302-658-2400, Fax #302-658-0568, Website:  http://www.Hagley.org.

Question:    At what strength (PSI) is steel considered structural steel?
Answer:   Structural steel is a term used in the ASTM standards. You may obtain the definition by checking with American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428, Phone #610-832-9500, Fax #610-932-9555, Website; http://www.astm.org

Question:    What is the size of the steel composite deck market in the U.S. and worldwide?
Answer:   This information can be obtained by contacting the Steel Deck Institute, P.O. Box 9506, Canton, OH 44711, Phone #216-493-7886, Fax #216-493-7886, Website: www.sdi.org.

Question:    Where can I find information on #10 steel cans used in the food industry?
Answer:   Contact Can Manufacturers Institute, Web site: www.cancentral.com
Question:   I’m looking for information on stainless steel, which the AISI Committee on Stainless Steel Producers produced, where can I find it?
Answer:   Booklets formerly produced by the AISI Committee on Stainless Steel Producers are now distributed by the Nickel Development Institute, Phone #416-591-7999, Fax #416-591-7987, Website: www.NIDI.org and also Specialty Steel Industry of North America, Phone #800-982-0355, Fax #202-342-8451, Website:  www.ssina.com

Question:   AISI at one time published a directory of steel plants in Canada and the United States - do you still have these?
Answer:   The Directory of Iron and Steel Plants and also on Suppliers is published and distributed by the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers, Three Gateway Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15222, Phone #412-281-6323, Fax #412-281-6216, website:  http://www.aise.org.

Question:   Where can I find a cross reference between AISI materials and DIN materials?
Answer:   You may check American Society of Metals International, 9639 Kinsman Road, Materials Park, OH 44073, Phone#800-336-5152, Fax #216-338-4634, Website: http://www.astm-intl.org.  Look for the publication Worldwide Guide to Equivalent Irons and Steels.

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 Publication Questions


Question:   What is a norm?
Answer:   A norm is the same as a standard.

Question:  Where can I find a book that provides technical information about dimensional steel, specifically I-Beams?
Answer:  The dimensions of heavy sections can be found in the Manual of Steel Construction published by the American Institute of Steel Construction.    You may visit their Website at www.aisc.org/. Light structural members can be downloaded at www.ssma.com, "Product Technical Information."

Question:   I am interested in finding some reference source on steel properties such as tensile strength, yield, density, etc.  Specifically, I am looking for 1013 steel plate properties at present time. 
Answer:   The best single reference for this information is the "Metals Handbook, Desk Edition, 2nd Edition, which can be purchased at www.asm-intl.org

Question:   Where can I get a Design Manual for 14K2 Bar Joist?
Answer:   Bar joist information is available through contacting Vulcraft, Website: www.vulcraft.com/ or Steel Joist Institute, Web site: www.steeljoist.org

Question:    Where can I locate a publication called Wire Rope Users Manual, which was a joint effort of the Committee of Wire Rope Producers, AISI, and the Wire Rope Technical Board and was published by the American Iron and Steel Institute in 1979?
Answer:   Wire Rope Users Manual is available from the Wire Rope Technical Board, Phone #888-289-9782 or 1-816-236-5054, Fax #1-816-236-5040, Website: WRTB@usa.net

Question:   I am working on regulations associated with Structural Steel Erection in response to federal OSHA’s Final Rule on Safety Standards for Steel Erection.  Where can I obtain an informational handbook on this subject that would have common terms used in the industry and explanations of various connecting work and construction procedures?
Answer:   This information is available from American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), One East Wacker Drive, Suite 3100, Chicago, Il 60601, Phone# 312-670-2400, Fax #312-670-5403, Website: www.aisc.org.

Question:   Where can I find the AISI book on steel entitled: The Making, Shaping and Treatment of Steel?
Answer:   The Making, Shaping and Treatment of Steel was an US Steel publication which is now being published and distributed by the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers, Three Gateway Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15222, Phone #412-281-6323, Fax #412-281-6216, Website: www.aise.org.

Question:   I’m looking for a copy of AISI’s Steel Electrical Raceways Design Manual publication has it been updated since 1975.
Answer:   Electrical Raceways and other Methods, 2E, by: Richard Loyd has been updated three times since 1996 with the latest edition scheduled for publication in 2002.  Copies can be obtained from: Heartland Technical Bookstore, 701 Collins Street, Suite D, P.O. Box 949, Little Rock, AR 72203, Phone #1-888-863-8827, Fax #501-372-8184, Website: www.heartlandbooks.com.

Question:   I’m looking for a copy of AISI 73 Criteria for Structural Application of Steel Cables for Buildings.  Has it been discontinued?
Answer:   We have the 1973 edition in our archives, however this publication has been updated by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, VA 20191, Phone #703-295-6000, Fax #703-295-6333, Website: www.asce.org. The new pub is entitled:  ASCE 19-96 Structural Application of Steel Cables for Building.

Question:   Where can I find AISI standard 12L14CRS and what is the purchase price?
Answer:   AISI does not sell standards.  The Iron and Steel Society distributes AISI Standard Steels (Handbook).  These handbooks contain the heat chemical ranges and limits for those grades of steel designated as standard by the American Iron and Steel Institute.  The unified numbering system (UNS), the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), and the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) designations are shown where appropriate.  The Iron and Steel Society, 186 Thorn Hill Road, Warrendale, PA 15086, Phone #724-776-1535, Fax #724-776-0430, E-mail: mailbag@issource.org, Website: www.issource.org/

Question:   How can I obtain a copy of Manual of Steel Construction dealing with steel design?
Answer:   Hot rolled steel design manual is available from the American Institute of Steel Construction, One East Wacker Drive, Suite 3100, Chicago, IL, Phone  #312-670-2400, Fax #312-670-5403, Website: www.aisc.org.  The full name of the manuals: (1)Manual of Steel Construction, Load and Resistance Factor Design (2) Manual of Steel Construction, Allowable Stress Design.

If you are interested in Cold –Formed Steel the Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual is available from American Iron and Steel Institute, 1101 17th Street, N.W., Suite 1300, Washington, DC 20035, Phone #202-452-7100, Fax #202-463-6573, Website:
www.steel.org.

Question:    Can you describe the video “Designing with Cold-Formed Steel”, Publication SG-9601?
Answer:   The videotape is about one hour long.  It describes how the cold-formed steel members are made and where the cold-formed steel members can apply.  The information is general.

Question:    Where can we find a video copy of the old film Steel and America-A New Look?
Answer:   We no longer distribute Steel and America-A New Look, copyrights to that film reverted back to Walt Disney Productions.  Contact them or call Westwood Screen, Suite 202, 211 Watling Avenue, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4Z 1P3, Phone #416-890-2305.

Question:    Where can I find a copy Modern Sewer Design – Canadian Edition?
Answer:   Canadian edition of Modern Sewer Design can be obtained from the Canadian Sheet Producers Institute, phone #519-650-1285, Fax #519-650-8081.

Question:    I’m looking for a 1992 publication Report on Steel Industry Waste Generation, Disposal Practices, and Potential Environmental Impact, that Baker Environmental did for AISI where can I acquire a copy?
Answer:   A copy of this report is located in AISI’s Environment Department.

Question:    Where can we find a copy of the “American Rust Standard Guide – a Guide for Grading Hot Rolled Steel by Surface Condition?”
Answer:    The book has been out of print since the 1960's.  You can contact the Society for Protective Coatings (SSPC), which produces the VIS 1 in both English & Spanish versions and can be purchased from them at www.sspc.org.

Question:    Do you have a publication, or know where I can find, Stress Strain Curves for a variety of automotive steels, specifically for Crash Finite Element Analysis purposes?
Answer:   May I suggest you look into the Technical Papers available at the Society of Automotive Engineer’s (SAE) Website: www.sae.org

Question:    Is the “Making of Steel” still in print?
Answer:   The “Making of Steel” an AISI publication on how steel is made beginning with the history of steel making is no longer being distributed.  However, we do have copies our archives library.

Question:     What are the improvements made in the 2002 edition of the Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual?
Answer:   In addition to updating the Manual for conformance with the 2001 edition of the North American Specification, the following improvements or additions have been made:

Standard studs and tracks produced by members of Steel Stud Manufacturers Association are included in Parts I through IV.

Four new comprehensive design examples are added:

  • C-Section with Openings - ASD and LRFD in Part II,
  • Unbraced Equal Leg Angle With Lips - Compression in Part III,
  • Section - Built-Up from Channels in Part III, and
  • Bolted Connection with Consideration of Shear Lag in Part IV.

A table of cross references between the Specification provisions and the corresponding illustrative examples is provided in Part V. Numerical designations have been added to the titles of test procedures in Part VI.

The following three new test procedures are included in Part VI:

  • AISI TS-4-02, Standard Test Methods for Determining the Tensile and Shear Strength of Screws;
  • AISI TS-6-02, Standard Procedures for Panel and Anchor Structural Tests and Commentary on the Standard Procedures;
  • AISI TS-8-02, Base Test Method for Purlins Supporting a Standing Seam Roof System.

Question:    How does AISI number the building construction standards?Answer:    Since 2007, each AISI building construction standard is numbered by a unique standard designation number followed by the edition number.  For example, AISI S100-07 means the 2007 edition of Standard S100.  The standard vs. the corresponding standard designation number is provided as follows:

  • AISI S100 – North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
  • AISI S110 – Standard for Seismic Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Systems – Special Bolted Moment Frames
  • AISI S200 – North American Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing–General Provisions
  • AISI S201 - North American Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing–Product Data
  • AISI S210 - North American Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing–Floor and Roof System Design
  • AISI S211 - North American Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing–Wall Stud Design
  • AISI S212 - North American Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing–Header Design
  • AISI S213 - North American Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing–Lateral Design
  • AISI S214 - North American Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing–Truss Design
  • AISI S230 - Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing–Prescriptive Method for One and Two Family Dwellings
  • AISI S9xx – A series of Test Procedures for cold-formed steel members, components and connection.

Please visit AISI e-store for ordering the publications.

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Recycling


Question: What is the most recycled product on earth?
Answer: According to many, the most recycled product on earth is the automobile. Nearly every car in North America, once scrapped, is sold for its usable parts, drained of its fluids then crushed, shredded and recycled.

Question: What is the recycled content of steel products?
Answer: All steel products contain at least 25 percent recycled content. Some steel products contain up to 100 percent recycled content. There are two processes for making steel. The Basic Oxygen Furnace process, which is used to produce the steel needed for packaging, car bodies, appliances and steel framing, uses a minimum of 25 recycled steel. The Electric Arc Furnace process, which is used to product steel shapes such as railroad ties and bridge spans, uses virtually 100 percent recycled steel.

Question: What are the three steps of the recycling process that the universal recycling logo symbolizes?
Answer: The three arrows in the recycling logo stand for collecting recyclables, process and manufacturing recyclables into new items, and buying recycled products. Most people don’t realize how important the third arrow in the loop really is. Purchasing recycled products helps sustain markets for recycled goods. The process of recycling just won’t work if these end markets don’t exist. With steel, you always buy recycled products because all steel products contain at least 25 percent recycled steel.

Question: What was the overall steel recycling rate in 2007?
Answer: The overall recycling rate in 2007 was 78.2 percent, which is the second highest level in the last decade. This means that more than 72 million tons of domestic steel scrap was recycled.

To find out more about steel recycling, visit www.recycle-steel.org.

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Bridges High Performance Steel


Response by Roy Teal, Consultant to AISI and the HPS Steering Committee & Welding Advisory Group

Sponsored by the American Iron and Steel Institute Contact: 202-752-7100 or http://www.steel.org

Inquiries about the manufacture and use of high performance steel, grades HPS70W and HPS50W for bridges, plus other steel related topics.

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  Cold-Formed Steel


Question: What is the most recent edition of the Cold-Formed Steel Specification?
Answer:     The most recent one is the 2007 edition of the North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members (AISI S100-07). A Supplement No. 2 (including Supplement No. 1) to AISI S100-07 has been published in 2010. The 2001 edition is the first edition of the North American cold-formed steel specification which is applicable in the USA, Canada and Mexico,  and it superseded the previous AISI Specification editions (1996 or older editions) and the previous CSA S136 editions (1994 or older editions published by Canadian Standards Association). AISI S100-07 is available to order via the link here.

Question: What are the differences between the 2007 edition and the 2001 edition of the Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members?
Answer:    The differences between the 2007 edition and the 2001 edition of the North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members was summarized in the PDF file. Click here to view or print the Summary.

Question: What are the improvements made in the 2008 edition of the Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual?
Answer:    In addition to updating the Manual for conformance with the 2007 edition of the North American Specification, the major improvements are included in the Preface of the Design Manual.  Click here to view the Preface.

Please visit AISI e-store for ordering the publications.

Question: Does cold-formed steel has standard shapes?
Answer:    The steel stud industry has standardized steel studs and joists (channel sections with lips) and tracks sections (channel sections without lips). Please visit the Steel Stud Manufacturers Association website to obtain the catalog for standardized sections.  The AISI Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual, 2008 Edition, includes most commonly standardized sections.  Useful tables, charts, and design examples are provided in the Design Manual. 

There are no other standardized shapes for cold-formed steel members.

Question: How can I find section property tables, load tables, and other design aides?
Answer:    For standardized stud and track sections, information can be found in the catalog published by Steel Stud Manufacturers Association (www.ssma.com).

The 2008 edition of the AISI Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual also provides gross and effective section properties of standardized stud, track sections, as well as channel, zee, hat and angle sections typically used in the cold-formed steel structures.

Question: How can I order the Specification, Design Manual, and Design Guides?
Answer:    AISI publications can be ordered via AISI e-store. Click here to link to the e-store .

Question: What is the main difference between hot-rolled steel and cold-formed steel?
Answer:    Cold-formed steel shapes are formed at room temperature, while hot-rolled steel shapes are formed at elevated temperature. From a design point of view, cold-formed steel is much thinner than hot-rolled steel, therefore, local buckling must be considered in cold-formed steel design. Cold-formed steel members are designed following North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members or AISI Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual. Hot-rolled steel members are designed following AISC Steel Construction Manual.

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 Residential Related Questions


Please visit Steel Framing Alliance Web site.

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Steel Distribution Poles Questions and Answers
               Contributed by Valmont Industries, Inc.


Question:    Please explain how steel poles can be called equivalent to wood poles, the materials are so different?
Answer:    The equivalency is based on loading specified by ANSI 05.1 for each wood pole class and then modified by a ratio of overload factors for wood and steel.

Question:    Would you comment on the deterioration of wood versus steel?
Answer:    Wood, being a natural grown material, deteriorates with age. It is subject to rot, fungus and decay as well as attack by insects and woodpeckers all of which will reduce the strength of the material. In most utility applications, the "normal" life of a wood pole is approximated 30 years. Steel on the other hand has an infinite life span when corrosion is kept in check. The use of galvanizing has proven to be an effective deterrent to corrosion for above ground and many below grade applications. There are some very good coatings which have been developed for below grade protection when soil conditions warrant it. These coatings, in conjunction with galvanizing, can extend the life span of steel considerably.

Question:    Are Steel Distribution poles on the approved RUS (REA) listing of materials?
Answer:    RUS does not approve material. They have a listing of approved suppliers of material. REA co-ops that have used steel distribution poles have indicated in their work plans they are being used "to gain experience and to look to the future". The application of steel distribution poles may require conditional approval for use on RUS funded projects.

We will use the poles per the A1 and C1 REA applications. Are there any problems using steel distribution poles in these applications?

Steel distribution poles can be used just like their wood counterparts.

Question:    Do steel poles have a provision for grounding equipment such as transformers, arresters, fuse cut-outs, etc.?
Answer:    Some pole manufacturers provide one grounding device at the groundline as a standard for all distribution poles. It is very easy to add an additional ground nut at the transformer location during fabrication should the utility indicate such a need. One manufacturer’s standard is a 3/8" diameter threaded insert. This detail will also accept the grounding stud used with transformers. Additional threaded inserts can be easily be added in the field by the utility at the time of pole installation should they be required.

Question:    Can we mount transformer racks directly to the pole?
Answer:    Because steel poles are round and approximately the same diameter as their wood counterparts, any transformers currently mounted on wood poles should be able to be mounted on steel.

Question:    What precautions are required for installing steel poles during "hot insert" applications?
Answer:    The same safety procedures and precautions currently being used for wood poles should be used for steel poles in this type of application.

Question:    Do you need to guy steel poles; and if so, how do you guy them?
Answer:    Steel distribution poles would need to be guyed if the wood pole it is replacing would have been guyed. The steel pole can be guyed just as you would a wood pole using the same hardware. By using a stronger class steel pole it may be possible to eliminate the need for guys all together.

Question:    Can guy attachments be included on steel poles for attaching guy wires?
Answer:    Steel poles can be guyed using the same hardware currently used for wood poles. Permanent attachments such as vangs can be welded into the poles for attaching guys, but this will increase the delivery times and pole costs. The use of your current hardware and construction standards means no additional changes have to be done to enable a utility to start using steel distribution poles.

Question:    What precautions are required for handling galvanized steel poles?
Answer:    The preferred method of lifting the poles is to use nylon slings. While a galvanized pole is very tough and abrasion resistant, it is not recommended that chains be used when handling them. During storage in the material yard, blocking should be used to keep the poles off the ground and to separate each layer just as you currently are doing with your wood poles.

Question:    Are name plates provided on the poles, and will utilities have problems with tagging the poles with the present lettering systems available?
Answer:    A tag is attached to the pole with the manufacturers name, pole height and class stamped on it. If the utility wishes to tag the poles with other information, they can easily add an aluminum tag that can be either pop-riveted or expoxied onto the pole.

Question:    How many holes do steel poles come with as a standard?
Answer:    For some steel utility pole manufacturers, there is no standard, or default, for the number of holes in a pole. The utility may specify as many holes as they would like and the manufacturer will drill them at the time of fabrication. Additional holes can also be easily drilled in the field, should they be required.

Question:    How difficult is it to drill holes in steel poles in the field?
Answer:    Holes can easily be drilled using either a rotabroach type of drill or standard twist drill. The rotabroach works best since it requires less force or energy to drill a hole.

Question:    Do you recommend a ground sleeve?
Answer:    Some utilities use ground sleeves. The need for a ground sleeve depends on many of the same factors used to determine the need for below grade coatings. Corrosive conditions or areas inaccessible for routine inspection may warrant the additional protection and cost of a ground sleeve, (typically two feet in length centered on the groundline).

Question:    Our standard practice for deadening 3 phase construction is to deaden the outer phases on the arm and the center phase on the pole. When we do this we take advantage of the insulating properties of the wood. What happens when we go to a steel pole, do we have to go to larger insulators?
Answer:    Larger insulators are one solution. One utility still uses their standard wood construction practice when they deaden on the end of the arm. They get the additional insulation they feel they need, for the center phase, by adding a fiberglass link between the pole and the insulator.

Question:    In the western US, there is a great deal of emphasis and effort on raptor protection. Will the use of steel poles pose a threat to raptors?
Answer:    Utilities that are concerned with electrocution of raptors, or bird of prey, have modified their distribution configuration to minimize the threat to the these birds. Typically, this modification on 3-phase construction consists of dropping the crossarm, with the outside phases, 43". This same construction can be used with steel poles. In addition, it may be necessary to field apply a layer of heat shrink wrap just above the crossarm to prevent the possibility of a phase to ground contact.

Question:    What finishes are available?
Answer:    The standard finish is hot dip galvanizing. High-tech coating systems such as powder paint are available to apply over the galvanizing in instances where a particular color is desired.

Question:    How do we climb these poles when we have to?
Answer:    An optional removable climbing safety step can be provided which fits into holes pre-drilled in the pole.

Question:    Can pole manufacturers coat the inside of the poles with galvanizing or paint?
Answer:    During the galvanizing process, the entire pole is immersed in the bath of molten zinc. Because the pole is immersed in both the cleaning solutions, flux and zinc, the inside surface is adequately cleaned and a good layer of zinc bonds to the pole. This process protects the pole inside and out. On painted poles, only the outside of the pole can be painted. Due to their small size, there is no way to mechanically clean the inside of the pole adequately for the paint to bond to the surface. This is why painted steel poles need to be sealed, to prevent moisture from reaching the interior surface and causing corrosion. If paint over galvanizing is specified, there is no need to be concerned about the interior as the zinc will provide protection.

Question:    How does a utility determine which class of steel pole is equivalent to a given class of wood pole?
Answer:    Steel distribution poles are typically designed to be equivalent to wood pole classes under NESC Grade B Construction requirements. Optional designs are available to meet loading criteria such as NESC Grade C Construction, or virtually any other regulatory or custom requirement.

Question:    What prevents a steel pole from sinking into the soil after it has been set in the ground?
Answer:    All poles come with a welded bearing plate to prevent the poles from settling into the soil when a vertical load is applied.

Question:    We presently are using the fiberglass crossarms on our wood construction, will we still be able to use these arms with steel poles?
Answer:    You can use the same hardware currently being used on wood poles.

Question:    Will we need to purchase different bolts, washers, etc., in order to use steel poles?
Answer:    The same hardware currently being used for your wood poles will work with steel poles because they are round and of approximately the same diameter.

Question:    How thick is the pole wall?
Answer:    Most poles are made from 11 gauge material (0.1196"). Some of the taller poles require 10, 7, or 5 gauge material (0.1345", 0.1793", 0.2092").

Question:    Will there be a problem with crushing the pole wall due to over tightening of the bolts?
Answer:    Although it may be possible if excessive force is used, we are not aware of this problem occurring when standard practices are followed. This includes using 4" square washers under the heads or nuts of the bolts.

Question:    Typical wood construction uses grid gains between the pole and the arm, is this required for steel poles?
Answer:    Most utilities who are using steel poles still put a grid gain between the arm and the pole. The gain provides a good flat surface to mount the arm to and due to its curved surface also provides good bearing surface to the pole. It keeps the arm from rocking on the pole. We know of one utility who has not installed gains. Utilities use either the standard gain used on wood poles or have switched to a plastic gain which has a smooth surface both against the pole and the arm.

Question:    Twisting or turning of a pole a problem?
Answer:    Normally twisting or turning of a steel pole is not a problem. However, should a utility feel it could occur for their application, the utility could easily drill a couple of holes in the base and attach either bolts or other equipment to prevent this from occurring.

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